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UN-Haiti Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA)


Legal Analysis of UN Responsibility

Financing Reparations Owed to Victims of Serious Violations of Human Rights Law: Lessons from the United Nations’ Approach, March 13, 2023

Violations of the Right to Effective Remedy: The UN’s Responsibility for Cholera in Haiti, Harvard Law School International Human Rights Clinic, Bureau des Avocats Internationaux, Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH), February 2020

Extracting Accountability: Special Rapporteurs and the United Nations’ Responsibility for Cholera in Haiti, UN Report – unpublished Philip Alston. (n.d.). NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 18-10, February 2018

Peacekeeping Without Accountability- The United Nations’ Responsibility for the Haitian Cholera Epidemic, Yale Law School et al., August 2013

The Cholera Outbreak in Haiti: Where and how did it begin?, Daniele Lantagne et al., Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, July 2013

La Responsabilité des Nations Unies aux temps du choléra, Frédéric Mégret, SSRN, April 2013

Report Card Finds the Most Effective, No-Cost UN Recommendations for Cholera in Haiti Remain Unimplemented Two Years Later, Physicians for Haiti, April 2013

Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century, Deborah Jenson et al., CDC: Emerging Infectious Diseases, November 2011

Population Genetics of Vibrio Cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the Origin of the Haitian Outbreak, Rene S. Hendrikson et al., American Society for Microbiology: mBio, August 2011

Understanding the Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Renaud Piarroux et al., CDC: Emerging Infectious Diseases, July 2011

Final Report of the Independent Panel of Experts on the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti, A. Cravioto, C.F. Lenata, D.S. Lantagne, B. Nair, May 2011

The Origin of the Haitian Cholera Outbreak Strain, Chen-San Chin et al., New England Journal of Medicine, January 2011

Scientific Reports on the Source of Cholera

Cholera: Two Years On, and the UN Has Yet to Take Responsibility, Center for Economic and Policy Research, October 2012

MINUSTAH’s Role in Reintroducing Cholera into Haiti, Rishi Rattan, Physicians for Haiti, April 2012

Is It Time for MINUSTAH to Leave?, Mark Schuller, February 2012

MINUSTAH by the Numbers, Center for Economic and Policy Research, December 2011

Responding to the UN’s Introduction of Cholera to Haiti

Responding to the Introduction of Cholera to Haiti: Policy Options, C. Ferstman, Redress, June 2016

UN Policies on Medical Cholera Prevention – Timeline, IJDH, January 2016

The Cholera Vaccine Campaign: An Update from Dr. Louise Ivers, Partners in Health, July 2012

Haiti: Cholera – Funding and Needs, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, December 2011

Broken UN Promises Lead to Haiti Cholera Resurgence, October 11, 2022

IJDH 2022 Publication in The Lancet Regional Health – Americas Urges the UN to Provide Cholera Victims with Compensation in Light of Its Impending Announcement on Elimination, March 25, 2022

IJDH, BAI, KKTP write to Columbia University Press regarding the publication of Ban Ki-moon’s 2021 Memoir entitled Resolved: Uniting Nations in a Divided World, July 12, 2021

14 UN independent human rights experts send allegation letter to UN Secretary General, (French) April 28, 2020 (Made Public: June 27, 2020) (UN Secretary General Response, June 27, 2020)

Cholera 9 Years On… A “New Approach”?, June 3, 2020

Over 60 Human Rights Organizations Demand UN Stop Its Retreat from Accountability, July 16, 2018

101 US Congressional leaders call on Antonio Guterres to ensure UN just response to Haiti cholera victims, June 14, 2018

Letter from BAI and IJDH to UN Deputy Secretary-General calling on UN to honor promises to victims, May 2018 (Read UN Response Here)

Stephen Lewis: Week in Review 194 – The UN’s Broken Promises in Haiti,” May 04, 2018

“Congressional Dear Colleagues letters calling for US funding for cholera: FY2018 (March 16, 2018) and FY2019 (March 16, 2018)”

Letter from Florida organizations and community leaders to Senator Rubio urging support for US cholera funding,” March 06, 2018

Letter from Florida organizations and community leaders to Representative Diaz-Balart urging support for US cholera funding,” March 06, 2018

Letter from diaspora groups to Rep. Nita Lowey (December 6, 2017)–and response from Rep. Lowey supporting cholera funding from Congress (December 19, 2017)”

Thousands of Cholera Victims Write Letters to the UN, December 10, 2015

UN Independent Expert and four Special Rapporteurs write to Ban Ki-moon on access to justice, October 23, 2015

154 Haitian-American Groups and Leaders Express Outrage at US and UN: Open Letter Calls for Just Response to Cholera in Haiti, July 9, 2015

Haiti’s Cholera Epidemic and Its Implications for UN Peacekeeping: For Consideration by the UN High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations, February 2015

77 Congresspersons Ask Ban Ki-moon for Due Process for Cholera Victims, December 19, 2014

UN Mandate Holders’ Public Statements on Remedy, December 5, 2014

Special Rapporteurs Allegation Letter to the UN on Cholera, September 25, 2014

Lawyers Call UN Secretary-General Ban’s Responses to Haiti Cholera Victims and U.S. Congress an “Outrage”, July 2013 (French version here)

Congresswoman Waters Urges United Nations to Commit Resources to Eradicate Cholera in Haiti, June 2013 (Creole version here)

Human Rights Groups Welcome UN Initiative on Haiti Cholera, Call for Immediate Action to Provide Justice to Victims, December 2012 (French version here)

Letter to the UN Secretary-General on Cholera in Haiti (Spanish & French), November 2012

Civil Society Groups Appeal to UN Secretary-General for Response to Haiti Cholera Claims, November 2012

Justice Groups Urge UN Human Rights Official Visiting Haiti to Examine Rights, August 2012 (Creole version here)

Human Rights Groups and NGOs Support Congressional Call for UN Response to Cholera, July 2012

Press Release: Over 5,000 Haitian Cholera Victims Sue UN, Seeking Justice (IJDH-BAI), November 2011 (Creole, French, Spanish)


When Ban Ki-Moon got it wrong, The New Humanitarian, September 3, 2021

UN warns Haiti aid response is underfunded, Al Jazeera, June 18, 2021, featuring Mario Joseph of BAI and former UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, Philip Alston


Why a rights-based UN response to cholera matters for COVID-19, Beatrice Lindstrom, Mario Joseph, and Brian Concannon, OpenGlobalRights, August 28, 2020

Cholera remains a public health threat in Haiti, Jeannot Francis, The Lancet Global Health, August 1, 2020


U.S. Congress to U.N.: What are you doing to compensate Haiti’s cholera victims?, by Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, June 15, 2018

Trump didn’t want to give Haiti $11 million for cholera. So Congress found another way, Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, March 2018

Sienna Merope-Synge Discusses U.N. Accountability in Haiti,” Yale Law School, February 2018


7 Years After a Cholera Epidemic, Haitians Are Fighting for Accountability, David Brand, Global Citizen, December 2017

The United Nations Material Assistance to Survivors of Cholera in Haiti: Consulting Survivors and Rebuilding Trust, October 2017

Is the UN to blame for cholera in Haiti? TRTWorld, October 10, 2017

Appel en faveur des victimes du cholera, Ricardo Lambert, Le Nouvelliste, August 2017

Jack Guy Lafontant rencontre le Comité de haut niveau pour l’élimination du choléra en Haïti, Michelson Cèsaire, Le Nouvelliste, August 2017

The Price of Peace? Peacekeeping with Impunity Harms Public Health in Haiti, Louise C. Ivers and Yodeline Guillaume, The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, August, 2017

Haiti’s cholera victims are still waiting for compensation while U.N. drags its feet, Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, July 2017

U.N. Brought Cholera to Haiti. Now It Is Fumbling Effort to Atone, Rick Glastone, New York Times, June 2017

UN is breaking its promise to people of Haiti (Opinion), Stephen Lewis, CNN, June 2017

Opinion: UN is breaking its promise to people of Haiti, Stephen Lewis, CNN, June 2017

Cholera, babies left by U.N. peacekeepers top list of Haiti’s woes, Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, June 2017

Haïti: accueil houleux pour la délégation du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU, Amelia Baron, RFI, June 2017

Haiti réclame a l’ONU justice pour les victims de cholera, EuroNews, June 2017

Une délégation du Conseil de sécurité en Haïti avant le départ des Casques bleus, Franceinfo, June 2017

Haïti-Conseil de sécurité : Cinq prix Nobel de la paix interpellent l’ONU, Alter Press, June 2017

Manifestation contre le conseil de sécurité à Port-au-Prince, Radio Metropole, June 2017

La ONU le debe a Haití alivio de la epidemia de cólera que introdujo, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017

Les victimes de choléra réclament justice et réparation, Le National, June 2017

L’ONU doit á Haïti une réponse á l’épidémie de choléra qu’elle a introduite, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017

The U.N. owes Haiti relief from cholera epidemic it introduced, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Jody Williams, Shirin Ebadi, Rigoberta Menchú Tum, And Betty Williams, Miami Herald, June 2017

Haiti betrayed: Stephen Lewis comments on disappointing new developments in the UN’s response to cholera in Haiti, Aids-Free World, June 2017

Front Uni de la Diaspora Haïtienne wrote a letter to Haitian Senators Urging them to raise the cholera issue with the United Nations Security Council,(the letter is in French), June 2017

U.N. pushes to finance Haiti’s cholera cleanup with leftover peacekeeping dollars, Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, June 2017

H.E. Ms Keisha Mcguire Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Grenada to the United Nations on Behalf of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) on Agenda Item 69 (C) “New Approach to Cholera in Haiti New York, June 2017

Intervention by H.E. Courtenay Rattray, Permanent Representative of Jamaica, at the Informal briefing by the Deputy Secretary-General on the United Nations’ New Approach to Cholera in Haiti June 2017

Cholera outbreak in Haiti—from 2010 to today, John Zarocostas, The Lancet, June 2017

UNstoppable: How Advocates Persevered in the Fight for Justice for Haitian Cholera Victims, Adam Houston, Health and Human Rights Journal, June 2017

U.N. Offers Regret but No Compensation for Kosovo Poisoning Victims, Austin Ramzy, New York Times, May 2017

Haiti still prone to cholera despite increased access to improved water sources, Healio, April 2017

Haiti’s cholera victims still can’t get what they need from the UN, Nicholas Lemay-Hebert and Rosa Freedman, The Conversation, April 2017

Will State Inaction at UN Imperil Haiti Cholera Response? Nathan Yaffe, IPI Global Observatory, April 2017

What They Knew, and When They Knew It, Jonathan M. Katz, Slate, March 2017

Haiti is still waiting on promised UN help for cholera epidemic, The Boston Globe, March 2017

Haïti: l’ONU « responsable mais pas coupable », Les Echos, March 2017

U.N. Accepts Blame but Dodges the Bill in Haiti, The New York Times, March 2017

After Bringing Cholera to Haiti, U.N. Can’t Raise Money to Fight It, Rick Gladstone, The New York Times, March 2017

UN Fund to Fight Cholera in Haiti at 2 Percent of Goal, Voice of America, March 2017

Les victimes du choléra se préparent à recevoir l’indemnisation promise par les Nations unies, Le Nouvelliste, February 2017 (English translation)

Credibility, integrity, transparency & courage: The Haitian Cholera outbreak and the United Nations (UN), F. Houghton, A. Norris, Department of Public Health & Health Promotion, Eastern Washington University, February 2017

Nobel Peace Laureates letter to Security Council President: “Premios Nobel al Consejo de Seguridad: salde su deuda con el pueblo de Haití,” Haití NO Minustah, June 2017

Letter of 5 Nobel Peace Laureates to Security Council President, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017 (French)

Letter of Latin American and Caribbean regional organizations to the Security Council: Organizaciones latinoamericanas reclaman al Consejo de Seguridad reparaciones para los crímenes de la MINUSTAH en Haití, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017

Letter of Latin American organizations to the Security Council, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017 (French)

Press release on Latin American and Nobel Peace Laureates actions RE: Security Council:Organizaciones latinoamericanas y Premios Nobel de la Paz llaman al Consejo de Seguridad a saldar su deuda con el pueblo de Haití, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017

Latin American organizations and 5 Nobel Peace Laureates call on Security Council to settle its debt to the people of Haiti, Haití NO Minustah, June 2017


U.N. Apologizes for Role in Haiti’s 2010 Cholera Outbreak, Somini Sengupta, The New York Times, December 2016

13 Members of Congress Demand Cholera Justice and UN Apology, Congress of the United States, November 2016

IADL Bulletin of UN Activities Features Haiti Cholera and Elections, The International Association of Democratic Lawyers, November 2016

Violations of human rights related to the ongoing cholera epidemic, IJDH, AIDS-Free World, HALEC, EJIH, HD3, October/November 2016

Linked to Haiti Cholera Outbreak, UN Considers Paying Millions in Compensation, Jason Beaubien, NPR, October 2016

Statement and Question on Haiti Cholera from Jamaican Ambassador, The Third Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, October 2016

Statement of Lawyers for Victims of the UN Cholera in Haiti on the Report of UN Special Rapporteur Alston, IJDH, October 2016

UN human rights expert: “UN lawyers undermine a just solution for the victims of cholera in Haiti,” United Nations, October 2016

Dr. Paul Farmer Is “Surprised and Upset and Humbled,” by Marc Silver After Visit to Haiti, NPR, October 2016

51 Florida Groups and Leaders Ask Hillary Clinton Meeting and Views on Urgent Haiti Issues, IJDH, October 2016

Dorcena Forry hosts first ‘Eyes on Haiti’ conversation; focus on cholera, storm aid, Maddie Kilgannon, Dorchester Reporter, October 2016

IJDH’s Beatrice Lindstrom Featured by NYU Law for Cholera Work, NYU Law, October 2016

Advocates Denounce UN Chief’s Failure to Acknowledge Responsibility for Cholera, IJDH, October 2016

New York Times Front Page on UN Cholera, Azam Ahmed, New York Times, October 2016

New York City Bar Demands Cholera Justice, New York City Bar, October 2016

Why the United Nations is facing pushback as it tries to help Haiti, Editorial, The Christian Science Monitor, October 2016

How the US and the UN Set the Stage for a Major Cholera Outbreak in Haiti, Editorial, Alternet, October 2016

After Hurricane Matthew, cholera is once again threatening Haiti, Jacqueline Charles, The Miami Herald, October 2016

British doctor who tackled Ebola now leads fight against cholera in Haiti, Jacqueline Charles, The Miami Herald, September 2016

President Privert Answers the Call of Cholera Victims in UN General Assembly Address, United Nations, September 2016

UN Chief Issues Historic Statement on Haiti Cholera, As Experts Call For A Robust UN Response to Victims, IJDH, September 2016

UN Secretary General Talks Cholera with President Obama, IJDH, September 2016

President urged to demand cholera reparations at UN General Assembly, Samuel Maxime, The Haiti Sentinel, September 2016

Haitians Deserve the Truth over the UN’s Role in Cholera Epidemic, Editorial, The Haiti Support Group, September 2016

Report of the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights (Français, Español), August 2016

UN Admits Role in Haiti Cholera – Media Coverage, August 2016

Boston activists win an important round in battle with the United Nations, Adrian Walker, The Boston Globe, August 2016

The UN in a time of cholera: Admitting incompetence in creating an epidemic, Editorial, NY Daily News, August 2016

Statement attributable to Spokesman for the Secretary-General on Haiti, August 2016 (SG Ban Ki-moon promises “material assistance” for cholera victims)

U.S. Court Upholds United Nations’ Immunity in Cholera Suit, Jonathan M. Katz, The New York Times, August 2016

Amid Haiti cholera epidemic, UN peacekeepers spill sewage and ignore water treatment, says internal report, George Russell, Fox News, August 2016

Senators Markey and Rubio demand US lead on UN accountability (letter), July 2016

State Dept. should demand UN take responsibility in Haiti, Editorial, The Boston Globe, July 2016

The Cholera Epidemic the U.N. Left Behind in Haiti, Editorial, The New York Times, July 2016

Cholera in Haiti: Epidemic and Fight History Prospects and Recommendations, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, July 2016

Lawmakers Urge John Kerry to Press U.N. for Haiti Cholera Response, Rick Gladstone, The New York Times, June 2016

Congress Faults Obama for Not Being Tough With UN Over Haiti’s Cholera Crisis, Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, June 2016

Bi-Partisan Letter by 158 Congresspersons to Secretary of State Kerry, June 2016

Why the Haitian Cholera Victims Deserve Their Day in Court, Jason Silverstein, PLoS, June 2016

Rock: We must fix the UN’s culture of coverups around peacekeeping, Allan Rock, Ottawa Citizen, June 2016

Dear Mr Ban Ki-moon, Editorial, The Lancet, June 2016

U.N. Accused of Cover Up as Cholera Ravages Haiti, WNYC, June 2016

UN response to Haiti cholera epidemic critics signals ‘potential breakthrough,’ Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, June 2016

De 145 Organismes et Individus: Lettre ouverte au très honorable Justin Trudeau, Premier ministre du Canada, April 2016

From 145 Organizations and Individuals: Open Letter to the Right Honourable Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, April 2016

UN could have prevented Haiti cholera epidemic with $2,000 health kit – study, Ed Pilkington and Joe Sandler Clarke, The Guardian, April 2016

Leaked UN report faults sanitation at Haiti bases at time of cholera outbreak, Joe Sandler Clarke and Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, April 2016

Truth and Justice for Haiti, The Boston Globe, April 2016

Intervention de SEM Pierre André DUNBAR Ambassadeur, Représantant Permanent, 31ème Session du Coneil des droits de l’homme, March 2016

Why The U.N. Is Being Sued Over Haiti’s Cholera Epidemic, Richard Knox, NPR, March 2016

Cholera Deaths in Haiti Could Far Exceed Official Count”, Rick Gladstone, The New York Times, March 2016

Blame for Haiti’s Cholera Epidemic, Kertch J. Conze, Miami Herald, March 2016

Cholera in Haiti: UN experts chastise Ban Ki-moon over handling of outbreak, Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, March 2016

Court Hears Suit Against U.N. on Haiti Cholera Outbreak, Rick Gladstone, The New York Times, March 2016

Unofficial Transcript from Oral Argument in Georges v. United Nations, March 2016

Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak, Joseph A. Lewnard, Marina Antillón, Gregg Gonsalves, Alice M. Miller, Albert I. Ko, Virginia E. Pitzer, PLOS, January 2016


Haiti Cholera Victims Want Justice from the UN, AJ+, October 2015

Audit of waste management in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, June 2015

UN Special Rapporteurs Send Cholera Accusation Letter to the Secretary General, April 2015

UN Cholera Plan for Haiti Must Choose Justice Over Charity, February 2015


77 Congresspersons Urge UN to Provide Settlement Mechanism for Cholera Victims and their Families, December 2014

There’s an Epidemic on Trial in New York — But It’s Not Ebola, Lauren Carasik, Vice, October 2014

Haiti cholera victims get a hearing in U.S. court, Olivia Crellin, Al Jazeera, October 2014

Secretary General in Haiti for Cholera “Photo-op” as Transparency Questions Continue to Dog the UN, Jake Johnston, July 2014

ICCPR Violations in the Context of the Cholera Epidemic in Haiti, September 2014

U.N. Chief Served Papers in Suit by Haitian Victims, Lawyers Say, June 2014

The UN is not above the law, March 2014

IJDH and John Marshall Law School: Cholera as a Grave Violation of the Right to Water in Haiti, February 2014

Local nonprofit up against the UN for Haiti, Adrian Walker, Boston Globe, February 2014


Immediate Press Coverage of Suit Filed Against the UN on October 9, 2013, October 2013

UN Official Pushes Compensation for Haiti Victims, October 2013

Haiti PM: United Nations has moral responsibility in Haiti cholera outbreak, Aaron Morrison and Jacqueline Charles, Miami Herald, September 2013

St Vincent’s Gonsalves Urges UN to Apologize For Bringing Cholera to Haiti, Caribbean Journal Staff, Carib Journal, September 2013

Why can’t anyone sue the United Nations?, Anna Schecter, NBC News, September 2013

L’Onu en grave conflit de droits en Haïti, August 2013

United Nations must admit its role in Haiti’s cholera outbreak, Editorial Board, Washington Post, August 2013

Haiti cholera epidemic caused by UN, say experts, Mark Doyle, BBC, July 2013

U.N. Faces Suit over Haitian Cholera Deaths, Peter James Spielmann, Associated Press, May 2013

United Nations Denies Justice to Haiti Cholera Victims UN announces legal claims “not receivable” after 15 months of silence, February 2013

UN Response to Haiti Cholera Complaint “Represents a Failure of the UN System,” CEPR Co-Director Says, Dan Beeton, CEPR, February 2013


UN Peacekeepers to blame for 7,500 cholera deaths in devastated Haiti: public health expert, National Post, October 2012

Security Council Members, Clinton Break with UN’s Policy of Denial on Cholera, March 2012

UN Must Take Responsibility for Haiti Cholera Outbreak, Maria-Elena Kolovos & Beatrice Lindstrom, Jurist, February 2012

Haiti’s Cholera Victims Demand UN to Deliver on its Promises, December 13, 2017

Haiti: Fr. Robinson Alexis Urges Justice and Individual Compensation for the Victims of Cholera, October 3, 2017

Fr Raphaël B. Desras: ‘All Cholera Victims Should Get Justice and Reparations’, September 29, 2017

Fr. Levêque Bien-Aimé: ‘We Are Still Waiting on U.N. to Deliver on its Promise to Cholera Victims’, September 29, 2017

Fr Michenet Duportal: ‘UN recognizes that it harms us, now, there has to be reparations,’ October 19, 2017

Catholic Priest Calls on Haitian Officials to Defend Cholera Victims, August 2, 2017

New Media Advocacy Project: “Fight the Outbreak” 1 minute video and 6 minute video, October 2, 2012

Press Conference in response to UN dismissal, May 8, 2013

Podcast: Meet the man who’s suing the United Nations for bringing cholera to Haiti, June 28, 2013